Jean-Pierre Melville (born October 20, 1917 Paris, FranceAugust 2, 1973) was a noted French director born Jean-Pierre Grumbach. He later adopted the pseudonym 'Melville' as a tribute to his favorite American author Herman Melville. Melville, who was Jewish, served in World War II and fought in Operation Dragoon. When he returned from the war he applied for a license to become an assistant director, but was refused. Without this support, he decided to direct his movies by his own means..
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