Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neuroscientist who left the laboratory to go into private practice as a neurologist. He founded the clinical and theoretical school of psychoanalysis which holds that human development progresses through a sequence of psychosexual stages which may be interfered with by internalized psychosocial conflicts. To cope with intrapsychic conflict the unconscious mind initiates a defensive process called repression in order to prevent unacceptable sexual and aggressive wishes from becoming conscious, however they remain active in the unconscious and continue to strive for expression. Most commonly, benign evidence of repressed contents can be seen in dreams, jokes, and various Freudian slips. When the mind has to cope with a serious failure of defensive repression, we see the development of symptom constellations called neurosis, which can be treated by bringing the repressed wishes fully and safely into consciousness and releasing the associated pent up emotional accumulation. Freud sought to accomplish this in the privacy and safety of the treatment situation. .
"Our knowledge of the historical worth of certain religious doctrines increases our respect for them, but does not invalidate our proposal that they should cease to be put forward as the reasons for the precepts of civilization. On the contrary! Those historical residues have helped us to view religious teachings, as it were, as neurotic relics, and we may now argue that the time has probably come, as it does in an analytic treatment, for replacing the effects of repression by the results of the rational operation of the intellect."
"Sexual love is undoubtedly one of the chief things in life, and the union of mental and bodily satisfaction in the enjoyment of love is one of its culminating peaks. Apart from a few queer fanatics, all the world knows this and conducts its life accordingly; science alone is too delicate to admit it."
"We are threatened with suffering from three directions: from our own body, which is doomed to decay and dissolution and which cannot even do without pain and anxiety as warning signals; from the external world, which may rage against us with overwhelming and merciless forces of destruction; and finally from our relations to other men. The suffering which comes from this last source is perhaps more painful than any other."
"I have no concern with any economic criticisms of the communist system; I cannot inquire into whether the abolition of private property is expedient or advantageous. But I am able to recognize that the psychological premisses on which the system is based are an untenable illusion. In abolishing private property we deprive the human love of aggression of one of its instruments... but we have in no way altered the differences in power and influence which are misused by aggressiveness."
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