The city is a fact in nature, like a cave, a run of mackerel or an ant-heap. But it is also a conscious work of art, and it holds within its communal framework many simpler and more personal forms of art. Mind takes form in the city; and in turn, urban forms condition mind.
Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 January 26, 1990) was an American historian of technology and science, also noted for his study of cities. Mumford was influenced by the work of Scottish theorist Sir Patrick Geddes.