Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist, widely regarded as the premier chemist of the twentieth century. Pauling was a pioneer in the application of quantum mechanics to chemistry, and in 1954 was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work describing the nature of chemical bonds. He also made important contributions to crystal and protein structure determination, and was one of the founders of molecular biology. Pauling is noted as a versatile scholar for his expertise in inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, metallurgy, immunology, anesthesiology, psychology, debate, radioactive decay, and the aftermath of nuclear weapons, in addition to quantum mechanics and molecular biology. Pauling received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962 for his campaign against above-ground nuclear testing, becoming the only person in history to individually receive two Nobel Prizes (Marie Curie won Nobel Prizes in physics and chemistry, but shared the former and won the latter individually; John Bardeen won two Nobel Prizes, but both were in the field of physics, and both were shared; Frederick Sanger won two Nobel Prizes in chemistry, but one was shared). Later in life, he became an advocate for regular consumption of massive doses of Vitamin C, which is still regarded as medically unorthodox today.
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